How to Choose the Best PCB Electronic Board?


July 3, 2024

Selecting a PCB electronic board involves several parts. These include resistors, capacitors, and integrated circuits (ICs). It also contains copper traces and FR4 material. Some boards use SMT technology for soldering. This blog guides you on making the right selection. Familiarize yourself with the concepts of type, material, and design.

What Is PCB Electronic Board?

A PCB electronic board is used to connect electronic parts. It accommodates resistors, capacitors, and ICs. This board has copper traces for the connections. They run along specific routes for circuits. It employs FR4 material for rigidity. Pads and vias connect layers. Signals move through traces. The design has an accuracy of 0.1 mm. SMT (surface-mount technology) assists in soldering parts. Solder joints hold the components tightly. Tracks can support 1A current. Tiny boards are appropriate for devices such as phones. Layers can be double-sided for additional intricacy.

What Are the Different Types of PCB Electronic Boards?

What Is PCB Electronic Board

· Single-Sided

A single-sided PCB electronic board contains only one copper-clad layer. Some components that make up the board include resistors, capacitors, and integrated circuits, among others. The resistor with a value of 220Ω connects to the VCC. It uses 5V. The board uses copper traces to route signals. Pads and Vias interconnect components. LED lights use this board. It is simple and cost-effective.

· Double-Sided

A double-sided PCB electronic board has two copper layers. The top and bottom contain elements such as; transistors, diodes, and inductors. They employ THT and SMT connections. It uses 3.3V for digital signals. This board is widely used in audio equipment and power supplies. It permits elaborate circuits.

· Multilayer

Multilayer PCBs range from 4 to 12 layers. This type has signal, ground, and power planes. They have copper traces and vias. It offers support for intricate circuits and high-speed signals. FR4 material is common. The dielectric layer acts as a barrier between the layers. High-end designs incorporate HDI tech. They improve functionality and durability.

· Flexible

Flexible PCB electronic boards are bendable. Polyimide (PI) is used as the base in their creation. Tracks are copper or silver. These boards are designed for tight places. Flex circuits reduce weight and size. Connectors and sensors employ flexibility. They operate in a temperature range of -40 to 85 degrees Centigrade. They are used by smartphones and wearables.

· Rigid

Rigid PCB electronic boards remain firm. They use fiberglass (FR4). Grooves are etched on the board. It has microcontrollers and memory chips. These boards maintain their shape under loads. Rigid types are in cars and machines. They handle high currents. They provide reliable performance.

How Do PCB Layers Affect Performance?

How Do PCB Layers Affect Performance

· Signal Integrity

Layers of the PCB electronic board assist the signals. It employs dielectric layers and copper tracks. In this case, the board has low Dk and high thermal conductivity. They prevent crosstalk and EMI on layers. The FR4 substrate and the 50Ω impedance control ensure no signal distortion. They minimize noise and reflection. This shows that appropriate signal spacing is effective in maintaining signal strength. Multilayer design works best.

· Heat Dissipation

The PCB electronic board remains cool. Thick copper layers and thermal vias do help. They connect hot areas to heatsinks. The board employs aluminum-backed layers for desirable cooling. Heat spreaders transfer heat from one place to another. This prevents ICs and resistors from overheating. Proper heat management helps to prolong the durability of the parts involved in the China PCB board.

· Power Distribution

Power is shared well in the PCB electronic board. It uses many layers for power planes. They cut voltage drops. Broad tracks allow the passage of large currents. They employ caps for noise reduction purposes. Power integrity remains healthy with controlled impedance. This board deals with high-power components such as the central processing unit.

· Component Density

The PCB electronic board accommodates many parts. It has multilayer designs for narrow spaces. This board places parts on both sides. SMD and BGA parts fit closely. Via-in-pad tech saves space. They make signal paths small. This board is used to create miniature devices.

Which Materials Are Used in PCB Manufacturing?

· FR4

FR4 is a strong material used in PCB electronic boards. The layer is fiberglass, which provides support. It is used because of its dielectric constant of 4.5. The surface has copper foil. The board’s thermal conductivity is 0.3. Solder masks cover traces. The material is flame-retardant. They attach through holes for coupling. They come with high mechanical strength.


PCB electronic boards employ PTFE because of its low dielectric constant of 2.1. It’s a plastic material ensuring flexibility. It supports high-frequency signals. PTFE layers interact with copper foil. The thermal conductivity is 0.25. The material is non-reactive and resists moisture. Some boards have been plated through holes. They are used in RF applications.

· Polyimide

Polyimide makes PCB electronic boards strong and flexible. Its dielectric constant is 3.5. This material is heat-resistant. Copper layers bond well. It is used for its thermal stability. The boards contain holes. The flexibility suits dynamic bending. The thermal conductivity is 0.12. It’s also flame-resistant. They are applied in the aerospace industry. PCB board layers are strong.

· CEM-1

CEM-1 is for PCB electronic boards. This material is composite epoxy. It has FR4 glass epoxy, and flame-retardant properties. They use 0.1 mm copper layers for conductivity. Its insulation strength is 1.5 kV. The board’s thickness is 1.6 mm, ensuring durability. Heat resistance is 130°C. This material meets IPC standards.

· Ceramic

Ceramic is used in PCB electronic boards. Its dielectric constant is 6.5. This material offers good thermal conduction of 24. It is utilized in high-power applications. The boards have metalized holes. Ceramic is durable and supports miniaturization. They are used in military devices. It can handle tough operating conditions. This is especially suitable for multilayer boards. 

Table on the Materials Are Used in PCB Manufacturing!

How Does PCB Design Impact Functionality?

· Trace Width

Tiny traces connect parts. If traces are too thin, they can break easily. A thicker trace can carry more current than a thin trace. Designers often use 0.2 mm width. It provides safe current flow. For high-power paths, they select 0.4 mm. The traces need copper layers. These layers give stability. Designers use vias for connections. Vias pass through the board, strengthening circuits.

· Component Placement

Capacitors and resistors lie on boards, and chips are also present. Each piece has its place. It is important to place them correctly to avoid overlaps. They use SMD, which stands for Surface-Mount Devices. This is especially beneficial in confined areas. Designers use 0.5 mm guidelines for spaces. This prevents short circuits. Larger components go first, and smaller ones fit next. This makes assembly easier. Proper positioning makes everything run smoothly.

· Ground Planes

Ground planes help stabilize circuits. Designers use large copper areas to reduce noise. They link ground planes to vias. Vias help balance signals. Ground planes cover 50% of the board size. Designers ensure they are clean. Defects like holes and cuts can be problematic. These planes reduce electrical noise and enhance heat dissipation, keeping the board cool.

· Signal Routing

Signals need clear paths. Designers use routing for this. It isolates power and signals. They avoid crossing traces. Designers keep paths short to reduce delay. They use serpentine traces. Serpentine traces help with timing. The distance between each trace must be 0.15 mm. This prevents interference. This way, signals remain strong. Routing prevents signal degradation in China PCB boards.

· Power Integrity

Power integrity is key. The PCB electronic board controls it. This keeps circuits steady at 1.8V and 3.3V, preventing noise. Good PCB design ensures smooth 50Ω traces. They connect ICs to capacitors. Proper placement is vital. The result is low EMI and reliable performance.

What Are the Essential Steps in PCB Fabrication?

· EtchingWhat Are the Essential Steps in PCB Fabrication

The process begins with etching. A copper layer is on the PCB. Chemicals like FeCl dissolve unwanted copper. Desired traces remain, connecting components. It’s precise and neat. Next, visual inspection detects defects, ensuring correct paths for electricity. Small vias connect layers. Etching develops the circuit pattern of the PCB.

· Drilling

Drilling forms through holes in the board. CNC machines ensure accuracy. Vias interconnect layers within the PCB. Carbide bits are used, ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 mm. This is crucial for multilayer boards. Holes ensure electrical connections. The board then moves to the plating line.

· Plating

Plating covers the drilled holes with copper. During electroplating, copper deposits on PCB layers, creating connections. The board goes into a copper bath. This step strengthens the vias. A solder mask is then applied, enhancing conductivity and durability. A CuSO solution is used. The PCB is now ready for the next steps.

· Solder Mask Application

Applying a solder mask to the PCB is essential. It covers traces, preventing shorts. Solder mask ink, usually green, is applied. The thickness is around 0.02 mm. UV light cures the ink, hardening it. Traces remain exposed, allowing components to fit perfectly.

· Silkscreen Printing

Silkscreen printing adds labels, crucial for assembly. White ink indicates part numbers. This step uses stencils for precision. Labels help position parts accurately. The process ensures clarity, and guiding during soldering. Afterward, the board undergoes V-scoring, making the PCB user-friendly by distinguishing parts.

· V-Scoring

V-scoring creates break lines for easy separation. It forms lines on the PCB by cutting. Sharp knives are used. V-scoring is essential for penalizing. The board is easily separable into parts. This step follows silkscreen printing, ensuring easy handling. V-scoring enhances assembly efficiency. The PCB is now ready for final inspection.

How to Test and Inspect PCB Boards?

· Automated Optical Inspection (AOI)How to Test and Inspect PCB Boards

A PCB electronic board has chips, LEDs, and resistors. AOI uses a camera to find errors. The system takes images at 45° and 90° angles. It matches images to the correct layout. AOI checks for misaligned chips, shorts, and open circuits. It ensures all parts are in place. Each inspection takes five seconds. AOI helps ensure boards work well.

· X-Ray Inspection

X-ray technology inspects PCB electronic boards for hidden problems. Beams see through layers, finding solder voids and bridge connections. X-rays inspect ball grid arrays (BGAs) to avoid shorts or misalignments. Small parts like QFNs are tested. A single X-ray scan lasts three milliseconds. X-ray inspection ensures China PCB boards work well.

· Functional Testing

Printed circuit boards undergo functional testing to check performance. Test jigs and fixtures check input/output signals and power levels. Microcontrollers, sensors, and integrated circuits are tested. Functional testing ensures all board aspects work. Defects are fixed before shipping. This testing ensures products are reliable.

· Electrical Testing

Electrical testing checks PCB electronic boards for proper connections. Flying probe testers find open circuits and shorts. The process measures resistance, capacitance, and inductance. Parts like diodes and capacitors are checked one by one. This ensures board’s paths are correct. Electrical testing ensures boards work efficiently. 

What Factors Influence PCB Durability and Reliability?

· Temperature Cycles

PCB boards face heat and cold. LHD Technology uses capacitors and resistors to handle it. Copper lines might break. FR4 material changes with heat. SMDs feel temperature shifts. Gold pads resist wear. LHD tests board functionality.

· Moisture Resistance

PCB boards must stay dry. LHD’s coatings keep water out. Vias and traces don’t rust. PTHs use nickel. Relative humidity affects components. Closed containers keep water away. LHD uses anti-fungal agents. Moisture sensors find leaks.

· Mechanical Stress

PCB boards endure bumps and shakes. Solder joints feel vibrations. Bending cracks traces. LHD Technology uses strong fiberglass. Drop tests help. LHD’s flexible PCBs take hits. Polyimide substrates flex but don’t break. PCB board layers handle stress. LHD tests for strength.

· Chemical Exposure

PCB boards encounter chemicals. Acid can damage traces. LHD’s coatings protect parts. Alkali solutions harm boards. Gold connectors resist rust. LHD uses hard materials. Epoxy resins resist chemicals. LHD tests for safety.


Knowing about PCB electronic boards helps you make the right choices. They have copper traces, integrated circuits, and resistors. Use materials like FR4. For the best results, visit LHD-PCB. They offer reliable products for all PCB needs. Happy designing!


Stone Shen

Stone Shen

Stone is the senior technical support and experienced sales engineer at LHD PCB, with more than twelve years of experience in the PCB design, manufacturing, and assembly industry. Served as an Engineering Manager for a Listed PCB company for eight years and has extensive experience in handling various large projects. Now worked as a sales engineer at LHD PCB and also provide product and technical services to different kinds of companies, rich experience in industrial control, the Internet of Things, medical, and new energy product projects.

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